The Real Application of Panchanngam in Ancient Vedic India

by Chandra Sekhar Sharma


Posted on 12/15/2019 10:27:43 PM


Panchanga is a simplified Annual book for Indian astronomical science of information , about human affairs and terrestrial events by studying the movements and relative positions of celestial objects . In Ancient Vedic civilization they were used mainly for knowing the right time for doing Vedic rituals. The another purpose of Panchangam is knowing , the angular positions of all planets with Earth as centre are calculated for each day. The Punchang consists of five limbs or accessories . The five limbs of the Panchang are supposed to represent the five sources of ethereal energies .These are Tithi (lunar day), Vara (weekday), Nakshatra (constellation), Yoga (a Luni-solar day) and Karana (half a lunar day).

Panchanga is a simplified book for  Indian Astronomical Science of information , about human affairs and terrestrial events by studying the movements and relative positions of celestial objects or  human bodies. In Ancient Vedic civilization they were used mainly for doing Vedic rituals. The Punchang consists of five limbs or accessories . The five limbs of the Panchang are supposed to represent the five sources of ethereal energies .These are Tithi (lunar day), Vara (weekday), Nakshatra (constellation), Yoga (a Luni-solar day) and Karana (half a lunar day). Indian Vedic Panchangam is  compiled by adopting two systems, one based on movement of earth around the Sun and another on the movement of Moon around the earth.

                    Now a days they are followed two methods of panchangas.1) is Drigganith Panchangam and  2) is Surya Siddhanta Panchangam. The application of Panchanga is the knowing the right time for doing the Vedic rutus and forecast the weather report for cultivation. There is two types of time system followed in Indian Panchanga times system .  1) is Ghadiya System 2) is hours system

                    Ancient Panchangas or followed Gahdiya system and new Panchangas are followed hours system. Traditional Panchanga followed the Ghadiyas system (nothing but a sidereal day ). Sidereal day is the time interval required by the earth to complete one rotation about its axis with respect  to a fixed star. It is of constant length as the rotation of earth on its axis in uniform. 60 Vilipthas=1 liptha , 60 Liptas= 1 Vighadiaya, 60 Vighdiys =1 Ghadiya, 60 Ghadiyas =1day.Every one knows the hours system. 60 sec =1 minit , 60 minit = 1 hour ,24 hours =1 day. The purpose of Panchangam, the angular positions of all planets with Earth as centre are calculated for each day.

                   Tithi.—This is the time during which the difference of the increment of longitude of the Sun and the Moon amounts to 12°. The lunar day is to the Hindu of the most prominent practical importance, since by it is regulated the performance of many religious ceremonies. In other words, the Tithi represents the lunar energy, and lunar energy is identified with mental energy .

                   Each Tithi or Lunar day is equal to 0.9483 of a day so that a lunar month is equal to about 29.53 days. The ending time of a Tithi is the moment at which the Moon is removed from the Sun by multiples of 12°. Thus when the Moon is 12° away from the Sun, the first lunar day or Prathama ends , when 24° Dwitiya and so on ; when in conjunction the Amavasya (New Moon), and when in opposition (180°) Pournimasya (full Moon) ends.  

Vara (Weekday) -  The weekdays are named in accordance with certain astronomical considerations.    Therefore on a weekday bearing the name of a particular planet, the influence of that planet is said to be predominant.

Nakshatra.—The zodiac is marked by 27 constellations or Nakshatras often termed lunar mansions. The position of a Nakshatra is dependent upon the actual time taken by the Moon to traverse 13° 20.' of ecliptic arc, of course, always beginning from the first point of the constellational zodiac. 

Yoga.— It is   the period during    which the joint motion in longitude of the Sun and the Moon amounts to 13° 20'.   There are twenty-seven Yogas.   

 Karana.-  half a lunar day meaning  thereby the time taken to complete the distance  which should be the multiple of 6 between the Sun and Moon. There are 11 Karanas, viz., (1) Bava, (2) Balava, (3) Kaulava, (4) Taitula, (5) Garija, (6) Vanija, (7) Visti, (8) Sakuna, (9) Chatushpada, (10) Naga and (11) Kimstughna. The first seven come by rotation eight times in a lunar month, commencing with the second half of the first lunar day. The last four are said to be permanent Karanas and occur in order with the second half of the 29th lunar day

Benefits from use of Panchangam   : Knowledge of Thithi bestows Wealth, Knowledge of Vaara increases Longevity, Knowledge of Nakshatra erases Sins, Knowledge of Yoga cures Diseases and Knowledge of Karana ensures Success in work .

Thank You
Chandra Sekhar sharma